Remoting (Scala)

Remoting (Scala)

For an introduction of remoting capabilities of Akka please see Location Transparency.

Preparing your ActorSystem for Remoting

The Akka remoting is a separate jar file. Make sure that you have the following dependency in your project:

"com.typesafe.akka" %% "akka-remote" % "2.2-M1"

To enable remote capabilities in your Akka project you should, at a minimum, add the following changes to your application.conf file:

akka {
  actor {
    provider = "akka.remote.RemoteActorRefProvider"
  remote {
    enabled-transports = ["akka.remote.netty.tcp"]
    netty.tcp {
      hostname = ""
      port = 2552

As you can see in the example above there are four things you need to add to get started:

  • Change provider from to akka.remote.RemoteActorRefProvider
  • Add host name - the machine you want to run the actor system on; this host name is exactly what is passed to remote systems in order to identify this system and consequently used for connecting back to this system if need be, hence set it to a reachable IP address or resolvable name in case you want to communicate across the network.
  • Add port number - the port the actor system should listen on, set to 0 to have it chosen automatically


The port number needs to be unique for each actor system on the same machine even if the actor systems have different names. This is because each actor system has its own networking subsystem listening for connections and handling messages as not to interfere with other actor systems.

Remote Configuration

The example above only illustrates the bare minimum of properties you have to add to enable remoting. There are lots of more properties that are related to remoting in Akka. We refer to the following reference file for more information:

# Akka Remote Reference Config File #

# This is the reference config file that contains all the default settings.
# Make your edits/overrides in your application.conf.

# comments about settings left out where they are already in akka-
# actor.jar, because otherwise they would be repeated in config rendering.

akka {

  actor {

    serializers {
      proto = "akka.remote.serialization.ProtobufSerializer"
      daemon-create = "akka.remote.serialization.DaemonMsgCreateSerializer"

    serialization-bindings {
      # Since does not extend Serializable but
      # GeneratedMessage does, need to use the more specific one here in order
      # to avoid ambiguity
      "" = proto
      "akka.remote.DaemonMsgCreate" = daemon-create

    deployment {

      default {

        # if this is set to a valid remote address, the named actor will be
        # deployed at that node e.g. "akka://[email protected]:port"
        remote = ""

        target {

          # A list of hostnames and ports for instantiating the children of a
          # router
          #   The format should be on "akka://[email protected]:port", where:
          #    - sys is the remote actor system name
          #    - hostname can be either hostname or IP address the remote actor
          #      should connect to
          #    - port should be the port for the remote server on the other node
          # The number of actor instances to be spawned is still taken from the
          # nr-of-instances setting as for local routers; the instances will be
          # distributed round-robin among the given nodes.
          nodes = []


  remote {

    ### General settings

    # Timeout after which the startup of the remoting subsystem is considered to be failed.
    # Increase this value if your transport drivers (see the enabled-transports section)
    # need longer time to be loaded.
    startup-timeout = 10 s

    # Timout after which the graceful shutdown of the remoting subsystem is considered to be failed.
    # After the timeout the remoting system is forcefully shut down.
    # Increase this value if your transport drivers (see the enabled-transports section)
    # need longer time to stop properly.
    shutdown-timeout = 10 s

    # Before shutting down the drivers, the remoting subsystem attempts to flush all pending
    # writes. This setting controls the maximum time the remoting is willing to wait before
    # moving on to shut down the drivers.
    flush-wait-on-shutdown = 2 s

    # Reuse inbound connections for outbound messages
    use-passive-connections = on

    # Dispatcher that the actors responsible to write to a connection will use.
    # The mailbox type must be always a DequeBasedMailbox.
    writer-dispatcher {
      mailbox-type = "akka.dispatch.UnboundedDequeBasedMailbox"

    # If enabled, an inbound connection is only considered to be live after the remote
    # system sent an explicit acknowledgement.
    # It is recommended to leave this setting on when connectionless transports (e.g. UDP)
    # are used.
    wait-activity-enabled = on

    # Controls the backoff interval after a refused write is reattempted. (Transports may
    # refuse writes if their internal buffer is full)
    backoff-interval = 0.01 s

    # Acknowledgment timeout of management commands sent to the transport stack.
    command-ack-timeout = 30 s

    ### Security settings

    # Enable untrusted mode for full security of server managed actors, prevents
    # system messages to be send by clients, e.g. messages like 'Create',
    # 'Suspend', 'Resume', 'Terminate', 'Supervise', 'Link' etc.
    untrusted-mode = off

    # Should the remote server require that its peers share the same
    # secure-cookie (defined in the 'remote' section)? Secure cookies are passed
    # between during the initial handshake. Connections are refused if the initial
    # message contains a mismatching cookie or the cookie is missing.
    require-cookie = off

    # Generate your own with the script availbale in
    # '$AKKA_HOME/scripts/' or using
    # 'akka.util.Crypt.generateSecureCookie'
    secure-cookie = ""

    ### Logging

    # If this is "on", Akka will log all inbound messages at DEBUG level,
    # if off then they are not logged
    log-received-messages = off

    # If this is "on", Akka will log all outbound messages at DEBUG level,
    # if off then they are not logged
    log-sent-messages = off

    # If this is "on", Akka will log all RemoteLifeCycleEvents at the level
    # defined for each, if off then they are not logged. Failures to deserialize
    # received messages also fall under this flag.
    log-remote-lifecycle-events = off

    ### Failure detection and recovery

    # Settings for the Phi accrual failure detector (
    # [Hayashibara et al]) used by the remoting subsystem to detect failed connections.
    failure-detector {

      # FQCN of the failure detector implementation.
      # It must implement akka.remote.FailureDetector and have
      # a public constructor with a com.typesafe.config.Config parameter.
      implementation-class = "akka.remote.PhiAccrualFailureDetector"

      # How often keep-alive heartbeat messages should be sent to each connection.
      heartbeat-interval = 1 s

      # Defines the failure detector threshold.
      # A low threshold is prone to generate many wrong suspicions but ensures
      # a quick detection in the event of a real crash. Conversely, a high
      # threshold generates fewer mistakes but needs more time to detect
      # actual crashes.
      threshold = 7.0

      # Number of the samples of inter-heartbeat arrival times to adaptively
      # calculate the failure timeout for connections.
      max-sample-size = 100

      # Minimum standard deviation to use for the normal distribution in
      # AccrualFailureDetector. Too low standard deviation might result in
      # too much sensitivity for sudden, but normal, deviations in heartbeat
      # inter arrival times.
      min-std-deviation = 100 ms

      # Number of potentially lost/delayed heartbeats that will be
      # accepted before considering it to be an anomaly.
      # This margin is important to be able to survive sudden, occasional,
      # pauses in heartbeat arrivals, due to for example garbage collect or
      # network drop.
      acceptable-heartbeat-pause = 3 s

    # After failed to establish an outbound connection, the remoting will mark the
    # address as failed. This configuration option controls how much time should
    # be elapsed before reattempting a new connection. While the address is
    # gated, all messages sent to the address are delivered to dead-letters.
    # If this setting is 0, the remoting will always immediately reattempt
    # to establish a failed outbound connection and will buffer writes until
    # it succeeds.
    retry-gate-closed-for = 0 s

    # If the retry gate function is disabled (see retry-gate-closed-for) the
    # remoting subsystem will always attempt to reestablish failed outbound
    # connections. The settings below together control the maximum number of
    # reattempts in a given time window. The number of reattempts during
    # a window of "retry-window" will be maximum "maximum-retries-in-window".
    retry-window = 3 s
    maximum-retries-in-window = 5

    # The length of time to gate an address whose name lookup has failed.
    # No connection attempts will be made to an address while it remains
    # gated. Any messages sent to a gated address will be directed to dead
    # letters instead. Name lookups are costly, and the time to recovery
    # is typically large, therefore this setting should be a value in the
    # order of seconds or minutes.
    gate-unknown-addresses-for = 60 s

    ### Transports and adapters

    # List of the transport drivers that will be loaded by the remoting.
    # A list of fully qualified config paths must be provided where
    # the given configuration path contains a transport-class key
    # pointing to an implementation class of the Transport interface.
    # If multiple transports are provided, the address of the first
    # one will be used as a default address.
    enabled-transports = ["akka.remote.netty.tcp"]

    # Transport drivers can be augmented with adapters by adding their
    # name to the applied-adapters setting in the configuration of a
    # transport. The available adapters should be configured in this
    # section by providing a name, and the fully qualified name of
    # their corresponding implementation. The class given here
    # must implement akka.akka.remote.transport.TransportAdapterProvider
    # and have public constructor without parameters.
    adapters {
      gremlin = "akka.remote.transport.FailureInjectorProvider"
      trttl = "akka.remote.transport.ThrottlerProvider"

    ### Default configuration for the Netty based transport drivers

    netty.tcp {
      # The class given here must implement the akka.remote.transport.Transport
      # interface and offer a public constructor which takes two arguments:
      #  1)
      #  2) com.typesafe.config.Config
      transport-class = "akka.remote.transport.netty.NettyTransport"

      # Transport drivers can be augmented with adapters by adding their
      # name to the applied-adapters list. The last adapter in the
      # list is the adapter immediately above the driver, while
      # the first one is the top of the stack below the standard
      # Akka protocol
      applied-adapters = []

      transport-protocol = tcp

      # The default remote server port clients should connect to.
      # Default is 2552 (AKKA), use 0 if you want a random available port
      # This port needs to be unique for each actor system on the same machine.
      port = 2552

      # The hostname or ip to bind the remoting to,
      # InetAddress.getLocalHost.getHostAddress is used if empty
      hostname = ""

      # Enables SSL support on this transport
      enable-ssl = false

      # Sets the connectTimeoutMillis of all outbound connections,
      # i.e. how long a connect may take until it is timed out
      connection-timeout = 120s

      # If set to "<id.of.dispatcher>" then the specified dispatcher
      # will be used to accept inbound connections, and perform IO. If "" then
      # dedicated threads will be used.
      use-dispatcher-for-io = ""

      # Sets the high water mark for the in and outbound sockets,
      # set to 0b for platform default
      write-buffer-high-water-mark = 0b

      # Sets the low water mark for the in and outbound sockets,
      # set to 0b for platform default
      write-buffer-low-water-mark = 0b

      # Sets the send buffer size of the Sockets,
      # set to 0b for platform default
      send-buffer-size = 32000b

      # Sets the receive buffer size of the Sockets,
      # set to 0b for platform default
      receive-buffer-size = 32000b

      # Sets the size of the connection backlog
      backlog = 4096

      # Used to configure the number of I/O worker threads on server sockets
      server-socket-worker-pool {
        # Min number of threads to cap factor-based number to
        pool-size-min = 2

        # The pool size factor is used to determine thread pool size
        # using the following formula: ceil(available processors * factor).
        # Resulting size is then bounded by the pool-size-min and
        # pool-size-max values.
        pool-size-factor = 1.0

        # Max number of threads to cap factor-based number to
        pool-size-max = 8

      # Used to configure the number of I/O worker threads on client sockets
      client-socket-worker-pool {
        # Min number of threads to cap factor-based number to
        pool-size-min = 2

        # The pool size factor is used to determine thread pool size
        # using the following formula: ceil(available processors * factor).
        # Resulting size is then bounded by the pool-size-min and
        # pool-size-max values.
        pool-size-factor = 1.0

        # Max number of threads to cap factor-based number to
        pool-size-max = 8


    netty.udp = ${akka.remote.netty.tcp}
    netty.udp {
      transport-protocol = udp

    netty.ssl = ${akka.remote.netty.tcp}
    netty.ssl = {
      # Enable SSL/TLS encryption.
      # This must be enabled on both the client and server to work.
      enable-ssl = true

      security {
        # This is the Java Key Store used by the server connection
        key-store = "keystore"

        # This password is used for decrypting the key store
        key-store-password = "changeme"

        # This is the Java Key Store used by the client connection
        trust-store = "truststore"

        # This password is used for decrypting the trust store
        trust-store-password = "changeme"

        # Protocol to use for SSL encryption, choose from:
        # Java 6 & 7:
        #   'SSLv3', 'TLSv1'
        # Java 7:
        #   'TLSv1.1', 'TLSv1.2'
        protocol = "TLSv1"

        # Example: ["TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA", "TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA"]
        # You need to install the JCE Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy
        # Files to use AES 256.
        # More info here:
        enabled-algorithms = ["TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA"]

        # There are three options, in increasing order of security:
        # "" or SecureRandom => (default)
        # "SHA1PRNG" => Can be slow because of blocking issues on Linux
        # "AES128CounterSecureRNG" => fastest startup and based on AES encryption
        # algorithm
        # "AES256CounterSecureRNG"
        # The following use one of 3 possible seed sources, depending on
        # availability: /dev/random, and SecureRandom (provided by Java)
        # "AES128CounterInetRNG"
        # "AES256CounterInetRNG" (Install JCE Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction
        # Policy Files first)
        # Setting a value here may require you to supply the appropriate cipher
        # suite (see enabled-algorithms section above)
        random-number-generator = ""




Setting properties like the listening IP and port number programmatically is best done by using something like the following:


Types of Remote Interaction

Akka has two ways of using remoting:

  • Lookup : used to look up an actor on a remote node with actorFor(path)
  • Creation : used to create an actor on a remote node with actorOf(Props(...), actorName)

In the next sections the two alternatives are described in detail.

Looking up Remote Actors

actorFor(path) will obtain an ActorRef to an Actor on a remote node, e.g.:

val actor = context.actorFor("akka.tcp://[email protected]:2552/user/actorName")

As you can see from the example above the following pattern is used to find an ActorRef on a remote node:

akka.<protocol>://<actor system>@<hostname>:<port>/<actor path>

Once you obtained a reference to the actor you can interact with it they same way you would with a local actor, e.g.:

actor ! "Pretty awesome feature"


For more details on how actor addresses and paths are formed and used, please refer to Actor References, Paths and Addresses.

Creating Actors Remotely

If you want to use the creation functionality in Akka remoting you have to further amend the application.conf file in the following way (only showing deployment section):

akka {
  actor {
    deployment {
      /sampleActor {
        remote = "akka.tcp://[email protected]:2553"

The configuration above instructs Akka to react when an actor with path /sampleActor is created, i.e. using system.actorOf(Props(...), "sampleActor"). This specific actor will not be directly instantiated, but instead the remote daemon of the remote system will be asked to create the actor, which in this sample corresponds to sampleActorSystem@

Once you have configured the properties above you would do the following in code:

val actor = system.actorOf(Props[SampleActor], "sampleActor")
actor ! "Pretty slick"

The actor class SampleActor has to be available to the runtimes using it, i.e. the classloader of the actor systems has to have a JAR containing the class.


In order to ensure serializability of Props when passing constructor arguments to the actor being created, do not make the factory an inner class: this will inherently capture a reference to its enclosing object, which in most cases is not serializable. It is best to create a factory method in the companion object of the actor’s class.


You can use asterisks as wildcard matches for the actor paths, so you could specify: /*/sampleActor and that would match all sampleActor on that level in the hierarchy. You can also use wildcard in the last position to match all actors at a certain level: /someParent/*. Non-wildcard matches always have higher priority to match than wildcards, so: /foo/bar is considered more specific than /foo/* and only the highest priority match is used. Please note that it cannot be used to partially match section, like this: /foo*/bar, /f*o/bar etc.


Caveat: Remote deployment ties both systems together in a tight fashion, where it may become impossible to shut down one system after the other has become unreachable. This is due to a missing feature—which will be part of the clustering support—that hooks up network failure detection with DeathWatch. If you want to avoid this strong coupling, do not remote-deploy but send Props to a remotely looked-up actor and have that create a child, returning the resulting actor reference.


Caveat: Akka Remoting does not trigger Death Watch for lost connections.

Programmatic Remote Deployment

To allow dynamically deployed systems, it is also possible to include deployment configuration in the Props which are used to create an actor: this information is the equivalent of a deployment section from the configuration file, and if both are given, the external configuration takes precedence.

With these imports:

import{ Props, Deploy, Address, AddressFromURIString }
import akka.remote.RemoteScope

and a remote address like this:

val one = AddressFromURIString("akka.tcp://[email protected]:1234")
val two = Address("akka.tcp", "sys", "host", 1234) // this gives the same

you can advise the system to create a child on that remote node like so:

val ref = system.actorOf(Props[SampleActor].
  withDeploy(Deploy(scope = RemoteScope(address))))


When using remoting for actors you must ensure that the props and messages used for those actors are serializable. Failing to do so will cause the system to behave in an unintended way.

For more information please see Serialization (Scala)

Routers with Remote Destinations

It is absolutely feasible to combine remoting with Routing (Scala). This is also done via configuration:

akka {
  actor {
    deployment {
      /serviceA/aggregation {
        router = "round-robin"
        nr-of-instances = 10
        target {
          nodes = ["akka.tcp://[email protected]:2552", "akka.tcp://[email protected]:2552"]

This configuration setting will clone the actor “aggregation” 10 times and deploy it evenly distributed across the two given target nodes.

Description of the Remoting Sample

There is a more extensive remote example that comes with the Akka distribution. Please have a look here for more information: Remote Sample This sample demonstrates both, remote deployment and look-up of remote actors. First, let us have a look at the common setup for both scenarios (this is common.conf):

akka {

  actor {
    provider = "akka.remote.RemoteActorRefProvider"

  remote {
    netty.tcp {
      hostname = ""

This enables the remoting by installing the RemoteActorRefProvider and chooses the default remote transport. All other options will be set specifically for each show case.


Be sure to replace the default IP with the real address the system is reachable by if you deploy onto multiple machines!

Remote Lookup

In order to look up a remote actor, that one must be created first. For this purpose, we configure an actor system to listen on port 2552 (this is a snippet from application.conf):

calculator {
  include "common"

  akka {
    remote.netty.tcp.port = 2552

Then the actor must be created. For all code which follows, assume these imports:

import com.typesafe.config.ConfigFactory
import{ ActorRef, Props, Actor, ActorSystem }

The actor doing the work will be this one:

class SimpleCalculatorActor extends Actor {
  def receive = {
    case Add(n1, n2) 
      println("Calculating %d + %d".format(n1, n2))
      sender ! AddResult(n1, n2, n1 + n2)
    case Subtract(n1, n2) 
      println("Calculating %d - %d".format(n1, n2))
      sender ! SubtractResult(n1, n2, n1 - n2)

and we start it within an actor system using the above configuration

val system = ActorSystem("CalculatorApplication",
val actor = system.actorOf(Props[SimpleCalculatorActor], "simpleCalculator")

With the service actor up and running, we may look it up from another actor system, which will be configured to use port 2553 (this is a snippet from application.conf).

remotelookup {
  include "common"

  akka {
    remote.netty.tcp.port = 2553

The actor which will query the calculator is a quite simple one for demonstration purposes

class LookupActor extends Actor {
  def receive = {
    case (actor: ActorRef, op: MathOp)  actor ! op
    case result: MathResult  result match {
      case AddResult(n1, n2, r) 
        println("Add result: %d + %d = %d".format(n1, n2, r))
      case SubtractResult(n1, n2, r) 
        println("Sub result: %d - %d = %d".format(n1, n2, r))

and it is created from an actor system using the aforementioned client’s config.

val system =
  ActorSystem("LookupApplication", ConfigFactory.load.getConfig("remotelookup"))
val actor = system.actorOf(Props[LookupActor], "lookupActor")
val remoteActor = system.actorFor(
  "akka.tcp://[email protected]:2552/user/simpleCalculator")

def doSomething(op: MathOp) = {
  actor ! (remoteActor, op)

Requests which come in via doSomething will be sent to the client actor along with the reference which was looked up earlier. Observe how the actor system name using in actorFor matches the remote system’s name, as do IP and port number. Top-level actors are always created below the "/user" guardian, which supervises them.

Remote Deployment

Creating remote actors instead of looking them up is not visible in the source code, only in the configuration file. This section is used in this scenario (this is a snippet from application.conf):

remotecreation {
  include "common"

  akka {
    actor {
      deployment {
        /advancedCalculator {
          remote = "akka.tcp://[email protected]:2552"

    remote.netty.tcp.port = 2554

For all code which follows, assume these imports:

import com.typesafe.config.ConfigFactory
import{ ActorRef, Props, Actor, ActorSystem }

The client actor looks like in the previous example

class CreationActor extends Actor {
  def receive = {
    case (actor: ActorRef, op: MathOp)  actor ! op
    case result: MathResult  result match {
      case MultiplicationResult(n1, n2, r) 
        println("Mul result: %d * %d = %d".format(n1, n2, r))
      case DivisionResult(n1, n2, r) 
        println("Div result: %.0f / %d = %.2f".format(n1, n2, r))

but the setup uses only actorOf:

val system =
  ActorSystem("RemoteCreation", ConfigFactory.load.getConfig("remotecreation"))
val localActor = system.actorOf(Props[CreationActor], "creationActor")
val remoteActor =
  system.actorOf(Props[AdvancedCalculatorActor], "advancedCalculator")

def doSomething(op: MathOp) = {
  localActor ! (remoteActor, op)

Observe how the name of the server actor matches the deployment given in the configuration file, which will transparently delegate the actor creation to the remote node.

Pluggable transport support

Akka can be configured to use various transports to communicate with remote systems. The core component of this feature is the akka.remote.Transport SPI. Transport implementations must extend this trait. Transports can be loaded by setting the akka.remote.enabled-transports configuration key to point to one or more configuration sections containing driver descriptions.

An example of setting up the default Netty based SSL driver as default:

akka {
  remote {
    enabled-transports = [akka.remote.netty.ssl] {
      key-store = "mykeystore"
      trust-store = "mytruststore"
      key-store-password = "changeme"
      trust-store-password = "changeme"
      protocol = "TLSv1"
      random-number-generator = "AES128CounterSecureRNG"
      enabled-algorithms = [TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA]

An example of setting up a custom transport implementation:

akka {
  remote {
    applied-transports = ["akka.remote.mytransport"]

    mytransport {
      # The transport-class configuration entry is required, and
      # it must contain the fully qualified name of the transport
      # implementation
      transport-class = "my.package.MyTransport"

      # It is possible to decorate Transports with additional services.
      # Adapters should be registered in the "adapters" sections to
      # be able to apply them to transports
      applied-adapters = []

      # Driver specific configuration options has to be in the same
      # section:
      some-config = foo
      another-config = bar

Remote Events

It is possible to listen to events that occur in Akka Remote, and to subscribe/unsubscribe to there events, you simply register as listener to the below described types in on the ActorSystem.eventStream.


To subscribe to any remote event, subscribe to RemotingLifecycleEvent. To subscribe to events related only to the lifecycle of associations, subscribe to akka.remote.AssociationEvent.


The use of term "Association" instead of "Connection" reflects that the remoting subsystem may use connectionless transports, but an association similar to transport layer connections is maintained between endpoints by the Akka protocol.

By default an event listener is registered which logs all of the events described below. This default was chosen to help setting up a system, but it is quite common to switch this logging off once that phase of the project is finished.


In order to switch off the logging, set akka.remote.log-remote-lifecycle-events = off in your application.conf.

To be notified when an association is over ("disconnected") listen to DisassociatedEvent which holds the direction of the association (inbound or outbound) and the addresses of the involved parties.

To be notified when an association is successfully established ("connected") listen to AssociatedEvent which holds the direction of the association (inbound or outbound) and the addresses of the involved parties.

To intercept errors directly related to associations, listen to AssociationErrorEvent which holds the direction of the association (inbound or outbound), the addresses of the involved parties and the Throwable cause.

To be notified when the remoting subsystem is ready to accept associations, listen to RemotingListenEvent which contains the addresses the remoting listens on.

To be notified when the remoting subsystem has been shut down, listen to RemotingShutdownEvent.

To intercept generic remoting related errors, listen to RemotingErrorEvent which holds the Throwable cause.

Remote Security

Akka provides a couple of ways to enhance security between remote nodes (client/server):

  • Untrusted Mode
  • Security Cookie Handshake

Untrusted Mode

As soon as an actor system can connect to another remotely, it may in principle send any possible message to any actor contained within that remote system. One example may be sending a PoisonPill to the system guardian, shutting that system down. This is not always desired, and it can be disabled with the following setting:

akka.remote.untrusted-mode = on

This disallows sending of system messages (actor life-cycle commands, DeathWatch, etc.) and any message extending PossiblyHarmful to the system on which this flag is set. Should a client send them nonetheless they are dropped and logged (at DEBUG level in order to reduce the possibilities for a denial of service attack). PossiblyHarmful covers the predefined messages like PoisonPill and Kill, but it can also be added as a marker trait to user-defined messages.

In summary, the following operations are ignored by a system configured in untrusted mode when incoming via the remoting layer:

  • remote deployment (which also means no remote supervision)
  • remote DeathWatch
  • system.stop(), PoisonPill, Kill
  • sending any message which extends from the PossiblyHarmful marker interface, which includes Terminated


Enabling the untrusted mode does not remove the capability of the client to freely choose the target of its message sends, which means that messages not prohibited by the above rules can be sent to any actor in the remote system. It is good practice for a client-facing system to only contain a well-defined set of entry point actors, which then forward requests (possibly after performing validation) to another actor system containing the actual worker actors. If messaging between these two server-side systems is done using local ActorRef (they can be exchanged safely between actor systems within the same JVM), you can restrict the messages on this interface by marking them PossiblyHarmful so that a client cannot forge them.


SSL can be used as the remote transport by adding akka.remote.netty.ssl to the enabled-transport configuration section. See a description of the settings in the Remote Configuration section.

The SSL support is implemented with Java Secure Socket Extension, please consult the offical Java Secure Socket Extension documentation and related resources for troubleshooting.


When using SHA1PRNG on Linux it's recommended specify as argument to the JVM to prevent blocking. It is NOT as secure because it reuses the seed. Use '/dev/./urandom', not '/dev/urandom' as that doesn't work according to Bug ID: 6202721.