Actors (Java)
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Actors (Java)

The Actor Model provides a higher level of abstraction for writing concurrent and distributed systems. It alleviates the developer from having to deal with explicit locking and thread management, making it easier to write correct concurrent and parallel systems. Actors were defined in the 1973 paper by Carl Hewitt but have been popularized by the Erlang language, and used for example at Ericsson with great success to build highly concurrent and reliable telecom systems.

The API of Akka’s Actors is similar to Scala Actors which has borrowed some of its syntax from Erlang.

Creating Actors

Note

Since Akka enforces parental supervision every actor is supervised and (potentially) the supervisor of its children, it is advisable that you familiarize yourself with Actor Systems and Supervision and Monitoring and it may also help to read Summary: actorOf vs. actorFor (the whole of Actor References, Paths and Addresses is recommended reading in any case).

Defining an Actor class

Actor in Java are implemented by extending the UntypedActor class and implementing the onReceive method. This method takes the message as a parameter.

Here is an example:

import akka.actor.UntypedActor;
import akka.event.Logging;
import akka.event.LoggingAdapter;

public class MyUntypedActor extends UntypedActor {
  LoggingAdapter log = Logging.getLogger(getContext().system(), this);

  public void onReceive(Object message) throws Exception {
    if (message instanceof String)
      log.info("Received String message: {}", message);
    else
      unhandled(message);
  }
}

Props

Props is a configuration class to specify options for the creation of actors. Here are some examples on how to create a Props instance.

Props props1 = new Props();
Props props2 = new Props(MyUntypedActor.class);
Props props3 = new Props(new UntypedActorFactory() {
  public UntypedActor create() {
    return new MyUntypedActor();
  }
});
Props props4 = props1.withCreator(new UntypedActorFactory() {
  public UntypedActor create() {
    return new MyUntypedActor();
  }
});

Creating Actors with Props

Actors are created by passing in a Props instance into the actorOf factory method.

ActorRef myActor = system.actorOf(
  new Props(MyUntypedActor.class).withDispatcher("my-dispatcher"), "myactor");

Creating Actors with default constructor

import akka.actor.ActorRef;
import akka.actor.ActorSystem;
import akka.actor.Props;
ActorSystem system = ActorSystem.create("MySystem");
ActorRef myActor = system.actorOf(new Props(MyUntypedActor.class), "myactor");

The call to actorOf returns an instance of ActorRef. This is a handle to the UntypedActor instance which you can use to interact with the UntypedActor. The ActorRef is immutable and has a one to one relationship with the Actor it represents. The ActorRef is also serializable and network-aware. This means that you can serialize it, send it over the wire and use it on a remote host and it will still be representing the same Actor on the original node, across the network.

In the above example the actor was created from the system. It is also possible to create actors from other actors with the actor context. The difference is how the supervisor hierarchy is arranged. When using the context the current actor will be supervisor of the created child actor. When using the system it will be a top level actor, that is supervised by the system (internal guardian actor).

public class FirstUntypedActor extends UntypedActor {
  ActorRef myActor = getContext().actorOf(new Props(MyActor.class), "myactor");

The name parameter is optional, but you should preferably name your actors, since that is used in log messages and for identifying actors. The name must not be empty or start with $, but it may contain URL encoded characters (eg. %20 for a blank space). If the given name is already in use by another child to the same parent actor an InvalidActorNameException is thrown.

Actors are automatically started asynchronously when created. When you create the UntypedActor then it will automatically call the preStart callback method on the UntypedActor class. This is an excellent place to add initialization code for the actor.

@Override
public void preStart() {
  ... // initialization code
}

Creating Actors with non-default constructor

If your UntypedActor has a constructor that takes parameters then you can't create it using 'actorOf(new Props(clazz))'. Then you can instead pass in 'new Props(new UntypedActorFactory() {..})' in which you can create the Actor in any way you like.

Here is an example:

// allows passing in arguments to the MyActor constructor
ActorRef myActor = system.actorOf(new Props(new UntypedActorFactory() {
  public UntypedActor create() {
    return new MyActor("...");
  }
}), "myactor");

This way of creating the Actor is also great for integrating with Dependency Injection (DI) frameworks like Guice or Spring.

Warning

You might be tempted at times to offer an UntypedActor factory which always returns the same instance, e.g. by using a static field. This is not supported, as it goes against the meaning of an actor restart, which is described here: What Restarting Means.

UntypedActor API

The UntypedActor class defines only one abstract method, the above mentioned onReceive(Object message), which implements the behavior of the actor.

If the current actor behavior does not match a received message, it's recommended that you call the unhandled method, which by default publishes a new akka.actor.UnhandledMessage(message, sender, recipient) on the actor system’s event stream (set configuration item akka.actor.debug.unhandled to on to have them converted into actual Debug messages).

In addition, it offers:

  • getSelf() reference to the ActorRef of the actor

  • getSender() reference sender Actor of the last received message, typically used as described in Reply to messages

  • supervisorStrategy() user overridable definition the strategy to use for supervising child actors

    This strategy is typically declared inside the actor in order to have access to the actor’s internal state within the decider function: since failure is communicated as a message sent to the supervisor and processed like other messages (albeit outside of the normal behavior), all values and variables within the actor are available, as is the getSender() reference (which will be the immediate child reporting the failure; if the original failure occurred within a distant descendant it is still reported one level up at a time).

  • getContext() exposes contextual information for the actor and the current message, such as:

    • factory methods to create child actors (actorOf)
    • system that the actor belongs to
    • parent supervisor
    • supervised children
    • lifecycle monitoring
    • hotswap behavior stack as described in HotSwap

The remaining visible methods are user-overridable life-cycle hooks which are described in the following:

public void preStart() {
}

public void preRestart(Throwable reason, Option<Object> message) {
  for (ActorRef each : getContext().getChildren())
    getContext().stop(each);
  postStop();
}

public void postRestart(Throwable reason) {
  preStart();
}

public void postStop() {
}

The implementations shown above are the defaults provided by the UntypedActor class.

Lifecycle Monitoring aka DeathWatch

In order to be notified when another actor terminates (i.e. stops permanently, not temporary failure and restart), an actor may register itself for reception of the Terminated message dispatched by the other actor upon termination (see Stopping Actors). This service is provided by the DeathWatch component of the actor system.

Registering a monitor is easy (see fourth line, the rest is for demonstrating the whole functionality):

public class WatchActor extends UntypedActor {
  final ActorRef child = this.getContext().actorOf(Props.empty(), "child");
  {
    this.getContext().watch(child); // <-- the only call needed for registration
  }
  ActorRef lastSender = getContext().system().deadLetters();

  @Override
  public void onReceive(Object message) {
    if (message.equals("kill")) {
      getContext().stop(child);
      lastSender = getSender();
    } else if (message instanceof Terminated) {
      final Terminated t = (Terminated) message;
      if (t.getActor() == child) {
        lastSender.tell("finished", getSelf());
      }
    } else {
      unhandled(message);
    }
  }
}

It should be noted that the Terminated message is generated independent of the order in which registration and termination occur. Registering multiple times does not necessarily lead to multiple messages being generated, but there is no guarantee that only exactly one such message is received: if termination of the watched actor has generated and queued the message, and another registration is done before this message has been processed, then a second message will be queued, because registering for monitoring of an already terminated actor leads to the immediate generation of the Terminated message.

It is also possible to deregister from watching another actor’s liveliness using context.unwatch(target), but obviously this cannot guarantee non-reception of the Terminated message because that may already have been queued.

Start Hook

Right after starting the actor, its preStart method is invoked.

@Override
public void preStart() {
  // registering with other actors
  someService.tell(Register(getSelf());
}

Restart Hooks

All actors are supervised, i.e. linked to another actor with a fault handling strategy. Actors may be restarted in case an exception is thrown while processing a message (see Supervision and Monitoring). This restart involves the hooks mentioned above:

  1. The old actor is informed by calling preRestart with the exception which caused the restart and the message which triggered that exception; the latter may be None if the restart was not caused by processing a message, e.g. when a supervisor does not trap the exception and is restarted in turn by its supervisor, or if an actor is restarted due to a sibling’s failure. If the message is available, then that message’s sender is also accessible in the usual way (i.e. by calling getSender()).

    This method is the best place for cleaning up, preparing hand-over to the fresh actor instance, etc. By default it stops all children and calls postStop.

  2. The initial factory from the actorOf call is used to produce the fresh instance.

  3. The new actor’s postRestart method is invoked with the exception which caused the restart. By default the preStart is called, just as in the normal start-up case.

An actor restart replaces only the actual actor object; the contents of the mailbox is unaffected by the restart, so processing of messages will resume after the postRestart hook returns. The message that triggered the exception will not be received again. Any message sent to an actor while it is being restarted will be queued to its mailbox as usual.

Stop Hook

After stopping an actor, its postStop hook is called, which may be used e.g. for deregistering this actor from other services. This hook is guaranteed to run after message queuing has been disabled for this actor, i.e. messages sent to a stopped actor will be redirected to the deadLetters of the ActorSystem.

Identifying Actors

As described in Actor References, Paths and Addresses, each actor has a unique logical path, which is obtained by following the chain of actors from child to parent until reaching the root of the actor system, and it has a physical path, which may differ if the supervision chain includes any remote supervisors. These paths are used by the system to look up actors, e.g. when a remote message is received and the recipient is searched, but they are also useful more directly: actors may look up other actors by specifying absolute or relative paths—logical or physical—and receive back an ActorRef with the result:

getContext().actorFor("/user/serviceA/actor") // will look up this absolute path
getContext().actorFor("../joe") // will look up sibling beneath same supervisor

The supplied path is parsed as a java.net.URI, which basically means that it is split on / into path elements. If the path starts with /, it is absolute and the look-up starts at the root guardian (which is the parent of "/user"); otherwise it starts at the current actor. If a path element equals .., the look-up will take a step “up” towards the supervisor of the currently traversed actor, otherwise it will step “down” to the named child. It should be noted that the .. in actor paths here always means the logical structure, i.e. the supervisor.

If the path being looked up does not exist, a special actor reference is returned which behaves like the actor system’s dead letter queue but retains its identity (i.e. the path which was looked up).

Remote actor addresses may also be looked up, if remoting is enabled:

getContext().actorFor("akka://[email protected]:1234/user/serviceB")

These look-ups return a (possibly remote) actor reference immediately, so you will have to send to it and await a reply in order to verify that serviceB is actually reachable and running. An example demonstrating actor look-up is given in Remote Lookup.

Messages and immutability

IMPORTANT: Messages can be any kind of object but have to be immutable. Akka can’t enforce immutability (yet) so this has to be by convention.

Here is an example of an immutable message:

public class ImmutableMessage {
  private final int sequenceNumber;
  private final List<String> values;

  public ImmutableMessage(int sequenceNumber, List<String> values) {
    this.sequenceNumber = sequenceNumber;
    this.values = Collections.unmodifiableList(new ArrayList<String>(values));
  }

  public int getSequenceNumber() {
    return sequenceNumber;
  }

  public List<String> getValues() {
    return values;
  }
}

Send messages

Messages are sent to an Actor through one of the following methods.

  • tell means “fire-and-forget”, e.g. send a message asynchronously and return immediately.
  • ask sends a message asynchronously and returns a Future representing a possible reply.

Message ordering is guaranteed on a per-sender basis.

Note

There are performance implications of using ask since something needs to keep track of when it times out, there needs to be something that bridges a Promise into an ActorRef and it also needs to be reachable through remoting. So always prefer tell for performance, and only ask if you must.

In all these methods you have the option of passing along your own ActorRef. Make it a practice of doing so because it will allow the receiver actors to be able to respond to your message, since the sender reference is sent along with the message.

Tell: Fire-forget

This is the preferred way of sending messages. No blocking waiting for a message. This gives the best concurrency and scalability characteristics.

actor.tell("Hello");

Or with the sender reference passed along with the message and available to the receiving Actor in its getSender: ActorRef member field. The target actor can use this to reply to the original sender, by using getSender().tell(replyMsg).

actor.tell("Hello", getSelf());

If invoked without the sender parameter the sender will be deadLetters actor reference in the target actor.

Ask: Send-And-Receive-Future

The ask pattern involves actors as well as futures, hence it is offered as a use pattern rather than a method on ActorRef:

import static akka.pattern.Patterns.ask;
import static akka.pattern.Patterns.pipe;
import scala.concurrent.Future;
import akka.dispatch.Futures;
import scala.concurrent.duration.Duration;
import akka.util.Timeout;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.ArrayList;
final Timeout t = new Timeout(Duration.create(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS));

final ArrayList<Future<Object>> futures = new ArrayList<Future<Object>>();
futures.add(ask(actorA, "request", 1000)); // using 1000ms timeout
futures.add(ask(actorB, "another request", t)); // using timeout from above

final Future<Iterable<Object>> aggregate =
  Futures.sequence(futures, system.dispatcher());

final Future<Result> transformed = aggregate.map(
  new Mapper<Iterable<Object>, Result>() {
    public Result apply(Iterable<Object> coll) {
      final Iterator<Object> it = coll.iterator();
      final String s = (String) it.next();
      final int x = (Integer) it.next();
      return new Result(x, s);
    }
  }, system.dispatcher());

pipe(transformed, system.dispatcher()).to(actorC);

This example demonstrates ask together with the pipe pattern on futures, because this is likely to be a common combination. Please note that all of the above is completely non-blocking and asynchronous: ask produces a Future, two of which are composed into a new future using the Futures.sequence and map methods and then pipe installs an onComplete-handler on the future to effect the submission of the aggregated Result to another actor.

Using ask will send a message to the receiving Actor as with tell, and the receiving actor must reply with getSender().tell(reply) in order to complete the returned Future with a value. The ask operation involves creating an internal actor for handling this reply, which needs to have a timeout after which it is destroyed in order not to leak resources; see more below.

Warning

To complete the future with an exception you need send a Failure message to the sender. This is not done automatically when an actor throws an exception while processing a message.

try {
  String result = operation();
  getSender().tell(result, getSelf());
} catch (Exception e) {
  getSender().tell(new akka.actor.Status.Failure(e), getSelf());
  throw e;
}

If the actor does not complete the future, it will expire after the timeout period, specified as parameter to the ask method; this will complete the Future with an AskTimeoutException.

See Futures (Java) for more information on how to await or query a future.

The onComplete, onSuccess, or onFailure methods of the Future can be used to register a callback to get a notification when the Future completes. Gives you a way to avoid blocking.

Warning

When using future callbacks, inside actors you need to carefully avoid closing over the containing actor’s reference, i.e. do not call methods or access mutable state on the enclosing actor from within the callback. This would break the actor encapsulation and may introduce synchronization bugs and race conditions because the callback will be scheduled concurrently to the enclosing actor. Unfortunately there is not yet a way to detect these illegal accesses at compile time. See also: Actors and shared mutable state

Forward message

You can forward a message from one actor to another. This means that the original sender address/reference is maintained even though the message is going through a 'mediator'. This can be useful when writing actors that work as routers, load-balancers, replicators etc. You need to pass along your context variable as well.

myActor.forward(message, getContext());

Receive messages

When an actor receives a message it is passed into the onReceive method, this is an abstract method on the UntypedActor base class that needs to be defined.

Here is an example:

import akka.actor.UntypedActor;
import akka.event.Logging;
import akka.event.LoggingAdapter;

public class MyUntypedActor extends UntypedActor {
  LoggingAdapter log = Logging.getLogger(getContext().system(), this);

  public void onReceive(Object message) throws Exception {
    if (message instanceof String)
      log.info("Received String message: {}", message);
    else
      unhandled(message);
  }
}

An alternative to using if-instanceof checks is to use Apache Commons MethodUtils to invoke a named method whose parameter type matches the message type.

Reply to messages

If you want to have a handle for replying to a message, you can use getSender(), which gives you an ActorRef. You can reply by sending to that ActorRef with getSender().tell(replyMsg). You can also store the ActorRef for replying later, or passing on to other actors. If there is no sender (a message was sent without an actor or future context) then the sender defaults to a 'dead-letter' actor ref.

public void onReceive(Object request) {
  String result = process(request);
  getSender().tell(result);       // will have dead-letter actor as default
}

Receive timeout

The UntypedActorContext setReceiveTimeout defines the inactivity timeout after which the sending of a ReceiveTimeout message is triggered. When specified, the receive function should be able to handle an akka.actor.ReceiveTimeout message. 1 millisecond is the minimum supported timeout.

Please note that the receive timeout might fire and enqueue the ReceiveTimeout message right after another message was enqueued; hence it is not guaranteed that upon reception of the receive timeout there must have been an idle period beforehand as configured via this method.

Once set, the receive timeout stays in effect (i.e. continues firing repeatedly after inactivity periods). Pass in Duration.Undefined to switch off this feature.

import akka.actor.ReceiveTimeout;
import akka.actor.UntypedActor;
import scala.concurrent.duration.Duration;

public class MyReceivedTimeoutUntypedActor extends UntypedActor {

  public MyReceivedTimeoutUntypedActor() {
    // To set an initial delay
    getContext().setReceiveTimeout(Duration.create("30 seconds"));
  }

  public void onReceive(Object message) {
    if (message.equals("Hello")) {
      // To set in a response to a message
      getContext().setReceiveTimeout(Duration.create("10 seconds"));
      getSender().tell("Hello world", getSelf());
    } else if (message == ReceiveTimeout.getInstance()) {
      // To turn it off
      getContext().setReceiveTimeout(Duration.Undefined());
      throw new RuntimeException("received timeout");
    } else {
      unhandled(message);
    }
  }
}

Stopping actors

Actors are stopped by invoking the stop method of a ActorRefFactory, i.e. ActorContext or ActorSystem. Typically the context is used for stopping child actors and the system for stopping top level actors. The actual termination of the actor is performed asynchronously, i.e. stop may return before the actor is stopped.

Processing of the current message, if any, will continue before the actor is stopped, but additional messages in the mailbox will not be processed. By default these messages are sent to the deadLetters of the ActorSystem, but that depends on the mailbox implementation.

Termination of an actor proceeds in two steps: first the actor suspends its mailbox processing and sends a stop command to all its children, then it keeps processing the termination messages from its children until the last one is gone, finally terminating itself (invoking postStop, dumping mailbox, publishing Terminated on the DeathWatch, telling its supervisor). This procedure ensures that actor system sub-trees terminate in an orderly fashion, propagating the stop command to the leaves and collecting their confirmation back to the stopped supervisor. If one of the actors does not respond (i.e. processing a message for extended periods of time and therefore not receiving the stop command), this whole process will be stuck.

Upon ActorSystem.shutdown, the system guardian actors will be stopped, and the aforementioned process will ensure proper termination of the whole system.

The postStop hook is invoked after an actor is fully stopped. This enables cleaning up of resources:

@Override
public void postStop() {
  // close some file or database connection
}

Note

Since stopping an actor is asynchronous, you cannot immediately reuse the name of the child you just stopped; this will result in an InvalidActorNameException. Instead, watch the terminating actor and create its replacement in response to the Terminated message which will eventually arrive.

PoisonPill

You can also send an actor the akka.actor.PoisonPill message, which will stop the actor when the message is processed. PoisonPill is enqueued as ordinary messages and will be handled after messages that were already queued in the mailbox.

Use it like this:

import akka.actor.PoisonPill;
import akka.actor.Kill;
myActor.tell(PoisonPill.getInstance(), null);

Graceful Stop

gracefulStop is useful if you need to wait for termination or compose ordered termination of several actors:

import static akka.pattern.Patterns.gracefulStop;
import scala.concurrent.Future;
import scala.concurrent.Await;
import scala.concurrent.duration.Duration;
import akka.pattern.AskTimeoutException;
try {
  Future<Boolean> stopped =
    gracefulStop(actorRef, Duration.create(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS), system);
  Await.result(stopped, Duration.create(6, TimeUnit.SECONDS));
  // the actor has been stopped
} catch (AskTimeoutException e) {
  // the actor wasn't stopped within 5 seconds
}

When gracefulStop() returns successfully, the actor’s postStop() hook will have been executed: there exists a happens-before edge between the end of postStop() and the return of gracefulStop().

Warning

Keep in mind that an actor stopping and its name being deregistered are separate events which happen asynchronously from each other. Therefore it may be that you will find the name still in use after gracefulStop() returned. In order to guarantee proper deregistration, only reuse names from within a supervisor you control and only in response to a Terminated message, i.e. not for top-level actors.

HotSwap

Upgrade

Akka supports hotswapping the Actor’s message loop (e.g. its implementation) at runtime. Use the getContext().become method from within the Actor. The hotswapped code is kept in a Stack which can be pushed (replacing or adding at the top) and popped.

Warning

Please note that the actor will revert to its original behavior when restarted by its Supervisor.

To hotswap the Actor using getContext().become:

import akka.japi.Procedure;
public class HotSwapActor extends UntypedActor {

  Procedure<Object> angry = new Procedure<Object>() {
    @Override
    public void apply(Object message) {
      if (message.equals("bar")) {
        getSender().tell("I am already angry?", getSelf());
      } else if (message.equals("foo")) {
        getContext().become(happy);
      }
    }
  };

  Procedure<Object> happy = new Procedure<Object>() {
    @Override
    public void apply(Object message) {
      if (message.equals("bar")) {
        getSender().tell("I am already happy :-)", getSelf());
      } else if (message.equals("foo")) {
        getContext().become(angry);
      }
    }
  };

  public void onReceive(Object message) {
    if (message.equals("bar")) {
      getContext().become(angry);
    } else if (message.equals("foo")) {
      getContext().become(happy);
    } else {
      unhandled(message);
    }
  }
}

This variant of the become method is useful for many different things, such as to implement a Finite State Machine (FSM). It will replace the current behavior (i.e. the top of the behavior stack), which means that you do not use unbecome, instead always the next behavior is explicitly installed.

The other way of using become does not replace but add to the top of the behavior stack. In this case care must be taken to ensure that the number of “pop” operations (i.e. unbecome) matches the number of “push” ones in the long run, otherwise this amounts to a memory leak (which is why this behavior is not the default).

public class UntypedActorSwapper {

  public static class Swap {
    public static Swap SWAP = new Swap();

    private Swap() {
    }
  }

  public static class Swapper extends UntypedActor {
    LoggingAdapter log = Logging.getLogger(getContext().system(), this);

    public void onReceive(Object message) {
      if (message == SWAP) {
        log.info("Hi");
        getContext().become(new Procedure<Object>() {
          @Override
          public void apply(Object message) {
            log.info("Ho");
            getContext().unbecome(); // resets the latest 'become'
          }
        }, false); // this signals stacking of the new behavior
      } else {
        unhandled(message);
      }
    }
  }

  public static void main(String... args) {
    ActorSystem system = ActorSystem.create("MySystem");
    ActorRef swap = system.actorOf(new Props(Swapper.class));
    swap.tell(SWAP, null); // logs Hi
    swap.tell(SWAP, null); // logs Ho
    swap.tell(SWAP, null); // logs Hi
    swap.tell(SWAP, null); // logs Ho
    swap.tell(SWAP, null); // logs Hi
    swap.tell(SWAP, null); // logs Ho
  }

}

Stash

The UntypedActorWithStash class enables an actor to temporarily stash away messages that can not or should not be handled using the actor's current behavior. Upon changing the actor's message handler, i.e., right before invoking getContext().become() or getContext().unbecome(), all stashed messages can be "unstashed", thereby prepending them to the actor's mailbox. This way, the stashed messages can be processed in the same order as they have been received originally.

Warning

Please note that the stash can only be used together with actors that have a deque-based mailbox. For this, configure the mailbox-type of the dispatcher to be a deque-based mailbox, such as akka.dispatch.UnboundedDequeBasedMailbox (see Dispatchers (Java)).

Here is an example of the UntypedActorWithStash class in action:

public class ActorWithProtocol extends UntypedActorWithStash {
  public void onReceive(Object msg) {
    if (msg.equals("open")) {
      unstashAll();
      getContext().become(new Procedure<Object>() {
        public void apply(Object msg) throws Exception {
          if (msg.equals("write")) {
            // do writing...
          } else if (msg.equals("close")) {
            unstashAll();
            getContext().unbecome();
          } else {
            stash();
          }
        }
      }, false); // add behavior on top instead of replacing
    } else {
      stash();
    }
  }
}

Invoking stash() adds the current message (the message that the actor received last) to the actor's stash. It is typically invoked when handling the default case in the actor's message handler to stash messages that aren't handled by the other cases. It is illegal to stash the same message twice; to do so results in an IllegalStateException being thrown. The stash may also be bounded in which case invoking stash() may lead to a capacity violation, which results in a StashOverflowException. The capacity of the stash can be configured using the stash-capacity setting (an Int) of the dispatcher's configuration.

Invoking unstashAll() enqueues messages from the stash to the actor's mailbox until the capacity of the mailbox (if any) has been reached (note that messages from the stash are prepended to the mailbox). In case a bounded mailbox overflows, a MessageQueueAppendFailedException is thrown. The stash is guaranteed to be empty after calling unstashAll().

The stash is backed by a scala.collection.immutable.Vector. As a result, even a very large number of messages may be stashed without a major impact on performance.

Note that the stash is part of the ephemeral actor state, unlike the mailbox. Therefore, it should be managed like other parts of the actor's state which have the same property. The Stash trait’s implementation of preRestart will call unstashAll(), which is usually the desired behavior.

Killing an Actor

You can kill an actor by sending a Kill message. This will restart the actor through regular supervisor semantics.

Use it like this:

import akka.actor.PoisonPill;
import akka.actor.Kill;
victim.tell(Kill.getInstance(), null);

Actors and exceptions

It can happen that while a message is being processed by an actor, that some kind of exception is thrown, e.g. a database exception.

What happens to the Message

If an exception is thrown while a message is being processed (i.e. taken out of its mailbox and handed over to the current behavior), then this message will be lost. It is important to understand that it is not put back on the mailbox. So if you want to retry processing of a message, you need to deal with it yourself by catching the exception and retry your flow. Make sure that you put a bound on the number of retries since you don't want a system to livelock (so consuming a lot of cpu cycles without making progress). Another possibility would be to have a look at the PeekMailbox pattern.

What happens to the mailbox

If an exception is thrown while a message is being processed, nothing happens to the mailbox. If the actor is restarted, the same mailbox will be there. So all messages on that mailbox will be there as well.

What happens to the actor

If code within an actor throws an exception, that actor is suspended and the supervision process is started (see Supervision and Monitoring). Depending on the supervisor’s decision the actor is resumed (as if nothing happened), restarted (wiping out its internal state and starting from scratch) or terminated.

Initialization patterns

The rich lifecycle hooks of Actors provide a useful toolkit to implement various initialization patterns. During the lifetime of an ActorRef, an actor can potentially go through several restarts, where the old instance is replaced by a fresh one, invisibly to the outside observer who only sees the ActorRef.

One may think about the new instances as "incarnations". Initialization might be necessary for every incarnation of an actor, but sometimes one needs initialization to happen only at the birth of the first instance when the ActorRef is created. The following sections provide patterns for different initialization needs.

Initialization via constructor

Using the constructor for initialization has various benefits. First of all, it makes it possible to use val fields to store any state that does not change during the life of the actor instance, making the implementation of the actor more robust. The constructor is invoked for every incarnation of the actor, therefore the internals of the actor can always assume that proper initialization happened. This is also the drawback of this approach, as there are cases when one would like to avoid reinitializing internals on restart. For example, it is often useful to preserve child actors across restarts. The following section provides a pattern for this case.

Initialization via preStart

The method preStart() of an actor is only called once directly during the initialization of the first instance, that is, at creation of its ActorRef. In the case of restarts, preStart() is called from postRestart(), therefore if not overridden, preStart() is called on every incarnation. However, overriding postRestart() one can disable this behavior, and ensure that there is only one call to preStart().

One useful usage of this pattern is to disable creation of new ActorRefs for children during restarts. This can be achieved by overriding preRestart():

@Override
public void preStart() {
    // Initialize children here
}

// Overriding postRestart to disable the call to preStart()
// after restarts
@Override
public void postRestart(Throwable reason) {
}

// The default implementation of preRestart() stops all the children
// of the actor. To opt-out from stopping the children, we
// have to override preRestart()
@Override
public void preRestart(Throwable reason, Option<Object> message) {
    // Keep the call to postStop(), but no stopping of children
    postStop();
}

Please note, that the child actors are still restarted, but no new ActorRef is created. One can recursively apply the same principles for the children, ensuring that their preStart() method is called only at the creation of their refs.

For more information see What Restarting Means.

Initialization via message passing

There are cases when it is impossible to pass all the information needed for actor initialization in the constructor, for example in the presence of circular dependencies. In this case the actor should listen for an initialization message, and use become() or a finite state-machine state transition to encode the initialized and uninitialized states of the actor.

private String initializeMe = null;

@Override
public void onReceive(Object message) throws Exception {
    if (message.equals("init")) {
        initializeMe = "Up and running";
        getContext().become(new Procedure<Object>() {
            @Override
            public void apply(Object message) throws Exception {
                if (message.equals("U OK?"))
                getSender().tell(initializeMe, getSelf());
            }
        });
    }
}

If the actor may receive messages before it has been initialized, a useful tool can be the Stash to save messages until the initialization finishes, and replaying them after the actor became initialized.

Warning

This pattern should be used with care, and applied only when none of the patterns above are applicable. One of the potential issues is that messages might be lost when sent to remote actors. Also, publishing an ActorRef in an uninitialized state might lead to the condition that it receives a user message before the initialization has been done.

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