The URI model

Akka HTTP offers its own specialised Uri model class which is tuned for both performance and idiomatic usage within other types of the HTTP model. For example, an HttpRequest’s target URI is parsed into this type, where all character escaping and other URI specific semantics are applied.

Parsing a URI string

We follow RFC 3986 to implement the URI parsing rules. When you try to parse a URI string, Akka HTTP internally creates an instance of the URI class, which holds the modeled URI components inside.

For example, the following creates an instance of a simple valid URI:

Scala
URI("http://localhost")
Java
URI.create("http://localhost");

Below are some more examples of valid URI strings, and how you can construct a Uri model class instances ,using Uri.from() method by passing scheme, host, path and query parameters.

Scala
Uri("ftp://ftp.is.co.za/rfc/rfc1808.txt") shouldEqual
  Uri.from(scheme = "ftp", host = "ftp.is.co.za", path = "/rfc/rfc1808.txt")

Uri("http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt") shouldEqual
  Uri.from(scheme = "http", host = "www.ietf.org", path = "/rfc/rfc2396.txt")

Uri("ldap://[2001:db8::7]/c=GB?objectClass?one") shouldEqual
  Uri.from(scheme = "ldap", host = "[2001:db8::7]", path = "/c=GB", queryString = Some("objectClass?one"))

Uri("mailto:[email protected]") shouldEqual
  Uri.from(scheme = "mailto", path = "[email protected]")

Uri("news:comp.infosystems.www.servers.unix") shouldEqual
  Uri.from(scheme = "news", path = "comp.infosystems.www.servers.unix")

Uri("tel:+1-816-555-1212") shouldEqual
  Uri.from(scheme = "tel", path = "+1-816-555-1212")

Uri("telnet://192.0.2.16:80/") shouldEqual
  Uri.from(scheme = "telnet", host = "192.0.2.16", port = 80, path = "/")

Uri("urn:oasis:names:specification:docbook:dtd:xml:4.1.2") shouldEqual
  Uri.from(scheme = "urn", path = "oasis:names:specification:docbook:dtd:xml:4.1.2")
Java
Uri uri1 = Uri.create("ftp://ftp.is.co.za/rfc/rfc1808.txt");
assertEquals("ftp", uri1.getScheme());
assertEquals(Host.create("ftp.is.co.za"), uri1.getHost());
assertEquals("/rfc/rfc1808.txt", uri1.getPathString());

Uri uri2 = Uri.create("http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt");
assertEquals("http", uri2.getScheme());
assertEquals(Host.create("www.ietf.org"), uri2.getHost());
assertEquals("/rfc/rfc2396.txt", uri2.getPathString());

Uri uri3 = Uri.create("ldap://[2001:db8::7]/c=GB?objectClass?one");
assertEquals("ldap", uri3.getScheme());
assertEquals(Host.create("[2001:db8::7]"), uri3.getHost());
assertEquals("objectClass?one", uri3.query().toString());

Uri uri4 = Uri.create("mailto:[email protected]");
assertEquals("mailto", uri4.getScheme());
assertEquals("[email protected]", uri4.getPathString());

Uri uri5 = Uri.create("news:comp.infosystems.www.servers.unix");
assertEquals("news", uri5.getScheme());
assertEquals("comp.infosystems.www.servers.unix", uri5.getPathString());

Uri uri6 = Uri.create("tel:+1-816-555-1212");
assertEquals("tel", uri6.getScheme());
assertEquals("+1-816-555-1212", uri6.getPathString());

Uri uri7 = Uri.create("telnet://192.0.2.16:80/");
assertEquals("telnet", uri7.getScheme());
assertEquals(Host.create("192.0.2.16"), uri7.getHost());
assertEquals("/", uri7.getPathString());

Uri uri8 = Uri.create("urn:oasis:names:specification:docbook:dtd:xml:4.1.2");
assertEquals("urn", uri8.getScheme());
assertEquals("oasis:names:specification:docbook:dtd:xml:4.1.2", uri8.getPathString());

For exact definitions of the parts of a URI, like scheme, path and query refer to RFC 3986. Here’s a little overview:

  foo://example.com:8042/over/there?name=ferret#nose
  \_/   \______________/\_________/ \_________/ \__/
   |           |            |            |        |
scheme     authority       path        query   fragment
   |   _____________________|__
  / \ /                        \
  urn:example:animal:ferret:nose

For “special” characters in URI, you typically use percent encoding like below. Percent encoding is discussed in more detail in the Query String in URI section.

Scala
// don't double decode
Uri("%2520").path.head shouldEqual "%20"
Uri("/%2F%5C").path shouldEqual Path / """/\"""
Java
Uri uri1 = Uri.create("http://foo.com?foo=%2520");
assertEquals(Optional.of("%20"), uri1.query().get("foo"));
Uri uri2 = Uri.create("http://foo.com?foo=%2F%5C");
assertEquals(Optional.of("/\\"), uri2.query().get("foo"));

Invalid URI strings and IllegalUriException

When an invalid URI string is passed to Uri() as below, an IllegalUriException is thrown.

Scala
//illegal scheme
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy Uri("foö:/a") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input 'ö', expected scheme-char, 'EOI', '#', ':', '?', slashSegments or pchar (line 1, column 3)",
    "foö:/a\n" +
      "  ^")
}

// illegal userinfo
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy Uri("http://user:ö@host") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input 'ö', expected userinfo-char, pct-encoded, '@' or port (line 1, column 13)",
    "http://user:ö@host\n" +
      "            ^")
}

// illegal percent-encoding
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy Uri("http://use%[email protected]") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input 'G', expected HEXDIG (line 1, column 13)",
    "http://use%[email protected]\n" +
      "            ^")
}

// illegal path
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy Uri("http://www.example.com/name with spaces/") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input ' ', expected '/', 'EOI', '#', '?' or pchar (line 1, column 28)",
    "http://www.example.com/name with spaces/\n" +
      "                           ^")
}

// illegal path with control character
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy Uri("http:///with\newline") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input '\\n', expected '/', 'EOI', '#', '?' or pchar (line 1, column 13)",
    "http:///with\n" +
      "            ^")
}
Java
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testIllegalScheme() {
  Uri.create("foö:/a");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input 'ö', expected scheme-char, 'EOI', '#', ':', '?', slashSegments or pchar (line 1, column 3)",
  //  "http://user:ö@host\n" +
  //  "            ^"
  //)
}
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testIllegalUserInfo() {
  Uri.create("http://user:ö@host");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input 'ö', expected userinfo-char, pct-encoded, '@' or port (line 1, column 13)",
  //  "http://use%[email protected]\n" +
  //  "            ^"
  //)
}
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testIllegalPercentEncoding() {
  Uri.create("http://use%[email protected]");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input 'G', expected HEXDIG (line 1, column 13)",
  //  "http://www.example.com/name with spaces/\n" +
  //  "                           ^"
  //)
}
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testIllegalPath() {
  Uri.create("http://www.example.com/name with spaces/");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input ' ', expected '/', 'EOI', '#', '?' or pchar (line 1, column 28)",
  //  "http://www.example.com/name with spaces/\n" +
  //  "                           ^"
  //)
}
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testIllegalPathWithControlCharacter() {
  Uri.create("http:///with\newline");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal URI reference: Invalid input '\\n', expected '/', 'EOI', '#', '?' or pchar (line 1, column 13)",
  //  "http:///with\n" +
  //  "            ^"
  //)
}

Directives to extract URI components

To extract URI components with directives, see following references:

Obtaining the raw request URI

Sometimes it may be needed to obtain the “raw” value of an incoming URI, without applying any escaping or parsing to it. While this use case is rare, it comes up every once in a while. It is possible to obtain the “raw” request URI in Akka HTTP Server side by turning on the akka.http.server.raw-request-uri-header flag. When enabled, a Raw-Request-URI header will be added to each request. This header will hold the original raw request’s URI that was used. For an example check the reference configuration.

Query string in URI

Although any part of URI can have special characters, it is more common for the query string in URI to have special characters, which are typically percent encoded.

Uri class’s query() methodThe method Uri::query() returns the query string of the URI, which is modeled in an instance of the Query class. When you instantiate a Uri class by passing a URI string, the query string is stored in its raw string form. Then, when you call the query() method, the query string is parsed from the raw string.

The below code illustrates how valid query strings are parsed. Especially, you can check how percent encoding is used and how special characters like + and ; are parsed.

Note

The mode parameter to Query() and Uri.query() is discussed in Strict and Relaxed Mode.

Scala
def strict(queryString: String): Query = Query(queryString, mode = Uri.ParsingMode.Strict)
Java
public Query strict(String query){
  return Query.create(query, akka.http.javadsl.model.Uri.STRICT);
}
Scala
//query component "a=b" is parsed into parameter name: "a", and value: "b"
strict("a=b") shouldEqual ("a", "b") +: Query.Empty

strict("") shouldEqual ("", "") +: Query.Empty
strict("a") shouldEqual ("a", "") +: Query.Empty
strict("a=") shouldEqual ("a", "") +: Query.Empty
strict("a=+") shouldEqual ("a", " ") +: Query.Empty //'+' is parsed to ' '
strict("a=%2B") shouldEqual ("a", "+") +: Query.Empty
strict("=a") shouldEqual ("", "a") +: Query.Empty
strict("a&") shouldEqual ("a", "") +: ("", "") +: Query.Empty
strict("a=%62") shouldEqual ("a", "b") +: Query.Empty

strict("a%3Db=c") shouldEqual ("a=b", "c") +: Query.Empty
strict("a%26b=c") shouldEqual ("a&b", "c") +: Query.Empty
strict("a%2Bb=c") shouldEqual ("a+b", "c") +: Query.Empty
strict("a%3Bb=c") shouldEqual ("a;b", "c") +: Query.Empty

strict("a=b%3Dc") shouldEqual ("a", "b=c") +: Query.Empty
strict("a=b%26c") shouldEqual ("a", "b&c") +: Query.Empty
strict("a=b%2Bc") shouldEqual ("a", "b+c") +: Query.Empty
strict("a=b%3Bc") shouldEqual ("a", "b;c") +: Query.Empty

strict("a+b=c") shouldEqual ("a b", "c") +: Query.Empty //'+' is parsed to ' '
strict("a=b+c") shouldEqual ("a", "b c") +: Query.Empty //'+' is parsed to ' '
Java
//query component (name: "a", and value: "b") is equal to parsed query string "a=b"
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b")), strict("a=b"));

assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("", "")), strict(""));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "")), strict("a"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "")), strict("a="));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", " ")), strict("a=+"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "+")), strict("a=%2B"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("", "a")), strict("=a"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "")).withParam("", ""), strict("a&"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b")), strict("a=%62"));

assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a=b", "c")), strict("a%3Db=c"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a&b", "c")), strict("a%26b=c"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a+b", "c")), strict("a%2Bb=c"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a;b", "c")), strict("a%3Bb=c"));

assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b=c")), strict("a=b%3Dc"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b&c")), strict("a=b%26c"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b+c")), strict("a=b%2Bc"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b;c")), strict("a=b%3Bc"));

assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a b", "c")), strict("a+b=c")); //'+' is parsed to ' '
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b c")), strict("a=b+c")); //'+' is parsed to ' '

Note that:

  Uri("http://localhost?a=b").query()

is equivalent to:

  Query("a=b")

As in the section 3.4 of RFTC 3986, some special characters like “/” and “?” are allowed inside a query string, without escaping them using (“%”) signs.

The characters slash (“/”) and question mark (“?”) may represent data within the query component.

“/” and “?” are commonly used when you have a URI whose query parameter has another URI.

Scala
strict("a?b=c") shouldEqual ("a?b", "c") +: Query.Empty
strict("a/b=c") shouldEqual ("a/b", "c") +: Query.Empty

strict("a=b?c") shouldEqual ("a", "b?c") +: Query.Empty
strict("a=b/c") shouldEqual ("a", "b/c") +: Query.Empty
Java
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a?b", "c")), strict("a?b=c"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a/b", "c")), strict("a/b=c"));

assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b?c")), strict("a=b?c"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b/c")), strict("a=b/c"));

However, some other special characters can cause IllegalUriException without percent encoding as follows.

Scala
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy strict("a^=b") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal query: Invalid input '^', expected '+', '=', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 2)",
    "a^=b\n" +
      " ^")
}
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy strict("a;=b") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal query: Invalid input ';', expected '+', '=', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 2)",
    "a;=b\n" +
      " ^")
}
Java
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testStrictModeException1() {
  strict("a^=b");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal query: Invalid input '^', expected '+', '=', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 2)",
  //  "a^=b\n" +
  //  " ^")
}
Scala
//double '=' in query string is invalid
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy strict("a=b=c") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal query: Invalid input '=', expected '+', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 4)",
    "a=b=c\n" +
      "   ^")
}
//following '%', it should be percent encoding (HEXDIG), but "%b=" is not a valid percent encoding
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy strict("a%b=c") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal query: Invalid input '=', expected HEXDIG (line 1, column 4)",
    "a%b=c\n" +
      "   ^")
}
Java
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testStrictModeException2() {
  strict("a;=b");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal query: Invalid input ';', expected '+', '=', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 2)",
  //  "a;=b\n" +
  //  " ^")
}

Strict and Relaxed Mode

The Uri.query() method and Query() take a parameter mode, which is either Uri.ParsingMode.Strict or Uri.ParsingMode.Relaxed. Switching the mode gives different behavior on parsing some special characters in URI.

Scala
def relaxed(queryString: String): Query = Query(queryString, mode = Uri.ParsingMode.Relaxed)
Java
public Query relaxed(String query){
  return Query.create(query,  akka.http.javadsl.model.Uri.RELAXED);
}

The below two cases threw IllegalUriException when you specified the Strict mode,

Scala
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy strict("a^=b") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal query: Invalid input '^', expected '+', '=', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 2)",
    "a^=b\n" +
      " ^")
}
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy strict("a;=b") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal query: Invalid input ';', expected '+', '=', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 2)",
    "a;=b\n" +
      " ^")
}
Java
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testStrictModeException1() {
  strict("a^=b");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal query: Invalid input '^', expected '+', '=', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 2)",
  //  "a^=b\n" +
  //  " ^")
}
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testStrictModeException2() {
  strict("a;=b");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal query: Invalid input ';', expected '+', '=', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 2)",
  //  "a;=b\n" +
  //  " ^")
}

but the Relaxed mode parses them as they are.

Scala
relaxed("a^=b") shouldEqual ("a^", "b") +: Query.Empty
relaxed("a;=b") shouldEqual ("a;", "b") +: Query.Empty
relaxed("a=b=c") shouldEqual ("a", "b=c") +: Query.Empty
Java
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a^", "b")), relaxed("a^=b"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a;", "b")), relaxed("a;=b"));
assertEquals(Query.create(Pair.create("a", "b=c")), relaxed("a=b=c"));

However, even with the Relaxed mode, there are still invalid special characters which require percent encoding.

Scala
//following '%', it should be percent encoding (HEXDIG), but "%b=" is not a valid percent encoding
//still invalid even in relaxed mode
the[IllegalUriException] thrownBy relaxed("a%b=c") shouldBe {
  IllegalUriException(
    "Illegal query: Invalid input '=', expected HEXDIG (line 1, column 4)",
    "a%b=c\n" +
      "   ^")
}
Java
@Test(expected = IllegalUriException.class)
public void testRelaxedModeException1() {
  //following '%', it should be percent encoding (HEXDIG), but "%b=" is not a valid percent encoding
  //still invalid even in relaxed mode
  relaxed("a%b=c");
  //IllegalUriException(
  //  "Illegal query: Invalid input '=', expected '+', query-char, 'EOI', '&' or pct-encoded (line 1, column 4)",
  //  "a%b=c\n" +
  //  "   ^")
}

Other than specifying the mode in the parameters, like when using directives, you can specify the mode in your configuration as follows.

    # Sets the strictness mode for parsing request target URIs.
    # The following values are defined:
    #
    # `strict`: RFC3986-compliant URIs are required,
    #     a 400 response is triggered on violations
    #
    # `relaxed`: all visible 7-Bit ASCII chars are allowed
    #
    uri-parsing-mode = strict

To access the raw, unparsed representation of the query part of a URI use the rawQueryString member of the Uri class.

Directives to extract query parameters

If you want to use directives to extract query parameters, see below pages.

The source code for this page can be found here.